Triglyceride-coated nanoparticles: skin toxicity and effect of UV/IR irradiation on them.
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Triglyceride (TG) is an important compound on the skin, produced by sebaceous glands, and may change cytotoxicity of different nanoparticles. To date, there is no report about toxicity of nanoparticles coated with TG. On the other hand, the use of ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) with nanoparticles changes nanoparticle cytotoxicity. The combination of nanoparticles with UV or IR is applicable, because it may be used for treatment or detection of local cancers, surface microbial infections and other skin diseases. In this study, different nanoparticles including titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, magnesium oxide, silver, gold, and TG-coated form of these nanoparticles, were added to suspensions of Balb/c skin cells, and then incubated for 24h at 37°C. Additionally, TG-coated nanoparticles were treated with UV and IR irradiation for 1h. Different methods were applied for evaluation of cytotoxicity, including 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, cell metabolic assay, ATP assay, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation assay. This research showed that TG-coated nanoparticles had less LDH release and ROS generation with higher cell viability, cell metabolic activity, and ATP level, compared with pristine nanoparticles. In contrast, the combination of UV and IR with TG-coated nanoparticles led to higher LDH release and ROS generation with less cell viability, cell metabolic activity, and ATP level, in comparison with pristine nanoparticles. Overall, pristine metal nanoparticles without irradiation had higher cytotoxicity than metal oxide nanoparticles.