Nutrient patterns and risk of cataract: A case-control study
Parisa Nezhad Hajian
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© 2017, International Journal of Ophthalmology (c/o Editorial Office). All rights reserved. • AIM: To assess the relation between nutrient patterns and cataract risk. • METHODS: This is a hospital-based case-control study with 97 cataract patients and 198 matched controls. Dietary consumption was collected through a valid food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Nutrient patterns were detected by applying factor analysis. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratio (ORs) and 95%CIs. • RESULTS: We extracted 5 main nutrient patterns. Factor 1 included niacin, thiamin, carbohydrates, protein, zinc, vitamin B6 and sodium (sodium pattern). Factor 2 was characterized by oleic acid, monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, linoleic acid, trans fatty acid, linolenic acid, vitamin E and saturated fats (fatty acid pattern). The third factor represented high intake of vitamin B12, vitamin D, cholesterol and calcium (mixed pattern). The 4th pattern was high in intake of beta and alpha carotene, vitamin A and vitamin C (antioxidant pattern). Finally, the 5th pattern loaded heavily on docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (omega-3 pattern). In crude and multivariate analysis, the sodium pattern was associated with increased risk of cataract (OR=1.97, 95%CI: 1.09-3.96). The fatty acid pattern elevated the risk of cataract (OR=1.94, 95%CI: 1.1-3.86). Antioxidant pattern was associated with a significant 79% reduced risk (2nd category compared with the 1st). Omega-3 pattern was significantly negatively associated with risk of cataract (P=0.04).• CONCLUSION: These findings imply that nutrient patterns reflecting a combined consumption of nutrients might be important in the etiology of cataract. Additional studies with more efficient designs are warranted to confirm our findings.