Analysis of transforming growth factor-β1 expression in resorptive lacunae following orthodontic tooth movement in an animal model
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Objective: Root resorption is a complication of orthodontic treatment and till date, there is a dearth of information regarding this issue. The aim of this study was to determine whether the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, an inflammatory cytokine) is related to orthodontic force. Moreover, if associated, the expression level may be helpful in differential diagnosis, control and ultimate treatment of the disease. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a total of 24 eight-week-old male Wistar rats were selected randomly. On day 0, an orthodontic appliance, which consisted of a closed coil spring, was ligated to the upper right first molar and incisor. The upper left first molar in these animals was not placed under orthodontic force, thus serving as the control group. On day 21, after anesthesia, the animals were sacrificed. The rats were then divided into two equal groups where the first group was subjected to histological evaluation and the second group to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Orthodontic tooth movement was measured in both groups to determine the influence of the applied force. Results: Statistical analysis of data showed a significant root resorption between the experimental group and control group (P < 0.05), however, there was no significant difference in the expression level of the inflammatory cytokine, TGF-β1. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, we suggest that there is a direct relationship between orthodontic force and orthodontic induced inflammatory root resorption. In addition, no relationship is likely to exist between root resorption and TGF-β1 expression in the resorptive lacunae.