Assessment of gingival biotype and facial hard/soft tissue dimensions in the maxillary anterior teeth region using cone beam computed tomography
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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Objective This study sought to assess the relationship between facial gingival and bone dimensions in maxillary anterior teeth region using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Design This study assessed 621 maxillary anterior teeth in 144 patients. In the sagittal plane, facial bone thickness (BT) and gingival thickness (GT) were measured at the crestal level and at 2, 4 and 6 mm apical to the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). The dentogingival complex (DGC) dimensions and the distance from the CEJ to bone crest were also measured on CBCT scans. To determine the gingival biotype, GT at 2 mm apical to the gingival margin was measured and GT < 1.5 mm was categorized as thin while GT ≥1.5 mm was categorized as thick. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 via repeated measures ANOVA and the Cochrane's Q, chi-square and independent samples t-tests. Results The BT around the maxillary central and lateral incisors and canine teeth at 4 and 6 mm apical to the CEJ was significantly different in thick and thin gingival biotypes (P < 0.05). The mean GT at 2 and 4 mm apical to the CEJ was significantly different around central and lateral incisors (P < 0.05). Thickness of crestal bone was significantly different between the two gingival biotypes around central and lateral incisors (P < 0.05). Conclusion The two gingival biotypes had significantly different mean BT; different biotypes and their relationship to BT varied around anterior maxillary teeth.