The prevalence of refractive errors in 6- to 15-year-old schoolchildren in Dezful, Iran
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© 2015 Iranian Society of Ophthalmology. Purpose: To determine the prevalence of refractive errors, among 6- to 15-year-old schoolchildren in the city of Dezful in western Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1375 Dezful schoolchildren were selected through multistage cluster sampling. After obtaining written consent, participants had uncorrected and corrected visual acuity tests and cycloplegic refraction at the school site. Refractive errors were defined as myopia [spherical equivalent (SE) -0.5 diopter (D)], hyperopia (SE ≥ 2.0D), and astigmatism (cylinder error > 0.5D). Results: 1151 (83.7%) schoolchildren participated in the study. Of these, 1130 completed their examinations. 21 individuals were excluded because of poor cooperation and contraindication for cycloplegic refraction. Prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism were 14.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 10.1-19.6), 12.9% (95% CI: 7.2-18.6), and 45.3% (95% CI: 40.3-50.3), respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed an age-related increase in myopia prevalence (p < < 0.001) and a decrease in hyperopia prevalence (p < < 0.001). There was a higher prevalence of myopia in boys (p < < 0.001) and hyperopia in girls (p = 0.007). Conclusion: This study showed a considerably high prevalence of refractive errors among the Iranian population of schoolchildren in Dezful in the west of Iran. The prevalence of myopia is considerably high compared to previous studies in Iran and increases with age.