Sphingosin-1-phosphate Receptor 1: a Potential Target to Inhibit Neuroinflammation and Restore the Sphingosin-1-phosphate Metabolism
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BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that an extreme shift may occur in sphingosine metabolism in neuroinflammatory contexts. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)-metabolizing enzymes (SMEs) regulate the level of S1P. We recently found that FTY720, a S1P analogue, and SEW2871, a selective S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) agonist, provide protection against neural damage and memory deficit in amyloid beta (Aβ)-injected animals. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of these two analogues on the expression of SMEs as well as their anti-inflammatory roles. METHODS: Rats were treated with intracerebral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or Aβ. Memory impairment was assessed by Morris water maze and the effects of drugs on SMEs as well as inflammatory markers, TNF- α and COX-II, were determined by immunoblotting. RESULTS: Aβ and LPS differentially altered the expression profile of SMEs. In Aβ-injected animals, FTY720 and SEW2871 treatments exerted anti-inflammatory effects and restored the expression profile of SMEs, in parallel to our previous findings. In LPS animals however, in spite of anti-inflammatory effects of the two analogues, only FTY720 restored the levels of SMEs and prevented memory deficit. CONCLUSION: The observed ameliorating effects of FTY720 and SEW7821 can be partly attributed to the interruption of the vicious cycle of abnormal S1P metabolism and neuro-inflammation. The close imitation of the FTY720 effects by SW2871 in Aβ-induced neuro-inflammation may highlight the attractive role of S1P1 as a potential target to restore S1P metabolism and inhibit inflammatory processes.