Total fluid intake and its determinants: cross-sectional surveys among adults in 13 countries worldwide
L. A. Moreno
S. A. Kavouras
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© 2015, The Author(s). Purpose: To evaluate the total fluid intake from drinking water and beverages in adult populations from different countries and assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) adequate intake (AI) of water from fluids. Methods: A total of 16,276 adults (7580 men and 8696 women) aged between 18 and 70 years (mean age 39.8 years) were randomly recruited from 13 different countries from three continents. Information about the total daily fluid intake (sum of drinking water and beverages) was collected using a 24-h fluid-specific record over seven consecutive days. Results: Important differences in total fluid intake between countries were found; however, few differences between men and women were reported in most of the countries. Less than 50 % of the women and approximately 60 % of the men do not comply with the EFSA AI of water from fluids. Women were more than twice as likely as men to meet these AI (OR 2.15; 95 % CI 2.02–2.29). The odds of meeting the AI of water from fluids were lower in individuals over 50 years (OR 0.88; 95 % CI 0.80–0.96). Nine percent of the total population consumed less than half of the AI, 40.5 % between 50 and 100 %, and 50.5 % more than the AI. Conclusions: There were considerable differences in total fluid intake between countries but not between genders. Only 40 % of men and 60 % of women comply with the EFSA AI of water from fluids. Men and elderly individuals had an increased risk of not complying with this reference value.