Imaging Findings of Isolated Bronchial Anthracofibrosis: A Computed Tomography Analysis of Patients With Bronchoscopic and Histologic Confirmation
Seyed Shahabeddin Mohammad Makki
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© 2014 SEPAR. Background: To evaluate the chest computed tomography (CT) findings of patients with isolated bronchial anthracofibrosis confirmed by bronchoscopy and histopathology. Methodology: Fifty-eight patients with isolated bronchial anthracofibrosis (29 females; mean age, 70 years) were enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of bronchial anthracofibrosis was made based on both bronchoscopy and pathology findings in all patients. The various chest CT images were retrospectively reviewed by two chest radiologists who reached decisions in consensus. Results: Central peribronchial soft tissue thickening (n. =. 37, 63.8%) causing bronchial narrowing (n. =. 37, 63.8%) or obstruction (n. =. 11, 19%) was identified as an important finding on imaging. Multiple bronchial stenoses with concurrent involvement of 2, 3, and 5 bronchi were seen in 12 (21%), 9 (15%), and 2 (3.4%) patients, respectively. Segmental atelectasis and lobar or multilobar collapse were detected. These findings mostly occurred in the right lung, predominantly in the right middle lobe. Mosaic attenuation patterns, scattered parenchymal nodules, nodular patterns, and calcified or non-calcified lymph nodes were also observed. Conclusions: On chest CT, isolated bronchial anthracofibrosis appeared as peribronchial soft tissue thickening, bronchial narrowing or obstruction, segmental atelectasis, and lobar or multilobar collapse. The findings were more common in the right side, with simultaneous involvement of multiple bronchi in some patients.