Effectiveness of biostimulation through nutrient content on the bioremediation of phenanthrene contaminated soil
Roshanak Rezaei Kalantary
Fatemeh Rashid Ashmagh
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©2014 Kalantary et al. Bioremediation has shown its applicability for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil and sediments. In the present study, the effect of biostimulation on phenanthrene removal from contaminated soil via adding macro and/or micronutrients and trace elements was investigated. For these purposes three macro nutrients (as N, P and K), eight micronutrients (as Mg, S, Fe, Cl, Zn, Mn, Cu and Na) and four trace elements (as B, Mo, Co and Ni) in 11 mineral salts (MS) as variables were used. Placket-Burman statistical design was used to evaluate significance of variables (MS) in two levels of high and low. A consortium of adapted microorganisms with PAHs was used for inoculation to the soil slurry which was spiked with phenanthrene in concentration of 500 mg/kg soil. The optimal reduction resulted when a high level of macro nutrient in the range of 67-87% and low level of micro nutrient in the range of 12-32% were used with the nitrogen as the dominant macronutrient. The Pareto chart showed that NH4NO3 was the most effective variable in this experiment. The effect of elements on phenanthrene biodegradation showed following sequence as N > K > P > Cl > Na > Mg. Effectiveness of the other elements in all runs was less than 1%. The type and concentration of nutrient can play an important role in biodegradation of phenanthrene. Biostimulation with suitable combination of nutrient can enhance bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soils.