Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome as the first presentation of chronic kidney disease
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Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a clinicoradiologic syndrome characterized by seizure, headache, nausea, vomiting, altered mental status, visual disturbance, or visual loss, together with radiologic findings. Herein we reported a patient who was a 27-year-old foreign workman brought to the emergency ward with blurred vision in both eyes, neck pain, somnolence, and altered mental status. He had no known medical or family history. On his physical examination, his blood pressure was 190/100mmHg and visual acuity of both eyes was decreased (visual acuity = 20/40 for both eyes). Although blood pressure was controlled by intravenous labetalol bolus, his symptoms did not improve. The result of his brain computed tomographic scan was normal, but in the brain magnetic resonance imaging, there were hyperintensities in the occipital lobe and right cerebellar hemisphere, suggesting posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. The findings from a complete blood count, biochemical testing, and renal, pelvic and abdominal ultrasound and also the calculated glomerular filtration rate values revealed that all were in favor of chronic kidney disease (hemoglobin level, 10.3 mg/dL; blood urea nitrogen, 90 mg/dL; Cr, 6.8 mg/dL; potassium, 5 mEq/L; sodium, 140 mEq/L; Cockcroft-Gault glomerular filtration rate, 15; weight, 65 kg). The hemodialysis was performed by which the sign and symptoms and radiologic findings resolved within 24 hours. Although PRES is described to be in association with many medical conditions, as mentioned in many available articles, we came to a conclusion that PRES could be the first presentation of a condition such as chronic kidney disease in our case. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.