Risk factors for fatal and nonfatal road crashes in Iran
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© 2014, Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. Background: Road traffic injuries are among the leading causes of death in the world and Iran. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the role of age, sex, education, and time of accident on human casualties and mortalities of road crashes in Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was based on data gathered by Iranian Police Department from the records of road crashes from April 4, 2008 through April 4, 2009. Road crashes are categorized into three types: with no human casualties, with injuries, and with human mortalities. Results: The largest rate of human causalities was observed in people aged between 25 to 34 years (P < 0.001). Illiterate people had 81% smaller odds of causality in road crashes (P < 0.001) in comparison with those with a kind of academic education. Overall, 73.4% of crashes had happened during the last ten days of a month were with human casualties (P < 0.001) and human casualties rate was slightly higher in crashes happened between 1 AM to 5 AM Fatality rate was slightly higher in the females (OR = 2.6, P = 0.068). The smallest odds of fatality were found in the people aged between 18 to 24 years and the highest odds were seen in people ≥ 55 years of age (P < 0.001). In people with a university education, 61.9% of crashes were with fatality (P = 0.026). In addition, 82.8% of crashes during winter, 60.2% of crashes during autumn, and 35.8% of crashes during summer were with mortalities. Overall, 78.3% of crashes with human casualties that had happened during 1 AM to 5 AM led to mortalities. There was also a significant association between injury and its intensity with fastening seatbelts. Conclusions: Older age, university degrees, female sex, wintertime, and the time of accident seem to be the most important risk factors in road crashes that lead to fatalities in Iran. Drivers in Iran should be informed and trained regarding these risk factors, which have direct effect on casualties and mortalities in road crashes.