From genome to gene: A review of genes and genetic variations associated with type 2 diabetes
Maryam Sadat Daneshpour
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© 2015, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved. Despite the valuable results achieved in identification of genes and genetic changes associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), lack of consistency and reproducibility of these results in different populations is one of the challenges lie ahead in introduction of T2D candidate genes. Therefore, the present review article aimed to provide an overview of the most important genes and genetic variations associated with development of T2D based on a systematic search in well-known genetic databases. For this purpose, the National Center for Biotechnology Information, Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (NCBI dbGaP) and Human Genome Epidemiology Network (HuGENet) database were searched to find the most important genes associated with T2D. In addition, a gray literature search was conducted to collect any available information released by laboratories offering genetic tests such as deCODE genetics and 23andMe. Candidate genes were selected among the results of all databases based on the highest level of similarity. Subsequently, without any time restriction, PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar databases were searched using relevant Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms to access related articles. The relevant articles were screened to make a conclusion about the genes and genetic variations associated with T2D. The results revealed that four selected candidate genes, in order of importance, were TCF7L2, CDKAL1, KCNJ11, and FTO. The most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with T2D in the TCF7L2 gene was rs7903146; however, the results showed a wide range of variation from slight association in the Amish (P=5.0×10 -2 ) to strong association in European descent populations (P= 2.0×10 -51 ). Then, rs10440833 mapping to the intronic region of the CDKAL1 gene showed significant association with T2D (P= 2.0×10 -22 ). In the KCNJ11 gene, a missense variation (rs5215) in exon one was found to have the highest association with T2D compared with other SNPs discovered in this gene (P= 5.0×10 -11 ). Finally, rs8050136 located in the first intron of the FTO gene had the strongest association with T2D (P= 2.0×10 -17 ). On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that the current study can be introduced as a model for achieving well-documented results among spectrum of information available in genetic databases based on a systematic search strategy. The candidate genes and genetic variations presented in this review article might be applied for early diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of T2D.