Dietary fructose and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults: Tehran lipid and glucose study
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Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between fructose intake and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Tehranian adults. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted using data from adults, aged 19-70 years, who participated in the third phase of Tehran Lipid and Glucose study. Dietary data were collected using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 168 food items. The sum of natural dietary fructose in fruits and vegetables, and fructose in industrialized foods containing added sweeteners, was calculated as total dietary fructose. Results: Forty-five and fifty-five percent of participants were men and women, with mean ages of 40.5±13.6 and 38.6±12.8 years, respectively. Mean dietary intakes of total fructose were 46.5±24.5 g/d in men and 37.3±24.2 g/d in women. Significant positive associations were observed between dietary fructose intake and body mass index (β=0.03 and 0.11, p < 0.001, in men and women respectively), systolic blood pressure (β=0.09 and 0.12, p < 0.01, in men and women respectively), diastolic blood pressure (β=0.13 and 0.80, p < 0.01, in men and women respectively) and fasting blood glucose in men (β=0.01, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Dietary fructose intake may have adverse effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors.