S. choloroleuca, S. mirzayanii and S. santolinifolia protect PC12 cells from H <inf>2</inf>O <inf>2</inf>-induced apoptosis by blocking the intrinsic pathway
Shabnam Zeighamy Alamdary
Solaleh Khoramian Tusi
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Several studies have shown that neuronal cell death due to apoptosis is the major reason for cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we report the anti-apoptotic effects of three Salvia species from Iran - S. choloroleuca, S. mirzayanii and S. santolinifolia - against H 2 O 2 -induced cytotoxicity in neuron-like PC12 cells. We showed that these antioxidant species could interfere with the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis by attenuating Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, decreasing outer mitochondrial membrane break and decreasing cytochrome c release to cytoplasm. Interestingly, we found that these species were able to replenish reduced glutathione level which affects cellular redox status and cytochrome c activity. Moreover, the decreased level of caspase-3, the executioner caspase, resulted in decrease of PARP-1 cleavage. Anti-apoptotic effects of these species along with their antioxidant effects, may represent a promising approach for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.