Reciprocal interconnection of miRNome-epigenome in cancer pathogenesis and its therapeutic potential
Seyed H. Ghaffari
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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. miRNAs are regarded both as targets of epigenetic changes and as regulators of the epigenetic machinery (epi-miRNAs). Studies over the past decade have demonstrated that deregulated cross-talk between miRNome-epigenome is functionally important in the pathogenesis of most human malignancies. While some miRNAs may be directly involved in cancer, others may be involved by targeting the key players of carcinogenesis, including epigenetic machinery effectors, cancer oncogenes and/or tumor suppressors. Decoding the miRNome-epigenome interaction and comprehension of this reciprocal interconnection will open new avenues to better understanding of human cancerogenesis, leading to introduction and addition of novel promising drugs to the growing list of other new anti-cancer products. This chapter will explain the complicated network of reciprocal interconnections between miRNAs and epigenetics; also it will focus on those miRNAs which undergo epigenetic changes in some of the most common human malignancies. Further understanding of epigenetic mechanisms in miRNA regulation along with the effect of epigenetic drugs on specific miRNAs might help to reset the abnormal cancer epigenome.