Gene expression profiles of BAD and Bcl-xL in the CA1 region of the hippocampus following global ischemic/reperfusion and FK-506 administration
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© 2015, Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. Background: The hippocampus is a tiny nub in the mammalian brain that is involved in forming, organizing, and storing memories. Global cerebral ischemia (GCI) and reperfusion induced apoptosis lead to cell injury and death. FK-506 is a strong immunosuppressant drug that has neuroprotective effects on the hypoxic-ischemic effects of brain damage. BAD and Bcl-xL are pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes, respectively. These genes belong to The B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family. Objectives: In this study, we assessed the neurotrophic properties of FK-506 on expression of the BAD and Bcl-xL genes in the hippocampus following global ischemia and reperfusion. Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study, adult male Wistar rats were obtained and housed under standard conditions in the Tehran University of Medical Science in Iran. Rats were equally distributed in groups of three among the following groups: normal control, treated-1 (ischemia/reperfusion), and treated-2 (ischemia/reperfusion followed by FK-506). Global ischemia was induced for animals in the treated-1 and treated-2 groups. In treated-2, two doses of FK-506 were injected: one dose as an IV injection immediately after reperfusion and another as an intra-peritoneal (IP) injection after 48 hours. Then, the hippocampus tissue was removed after anaesthetizing the rats. RNA was isolated, cDNA was synthesized, and real-time PCR was performed. Finally, the obtained data were analyzed statistically (P value ˂ 0.05). Results: The quantitative results of real-time PCR show that the mRNA expression ratio of Bcl-xL down-regulated was 0.75 ± 0.06 in the ischemia/reperfusion group versus 1.57 ± 0.09 in the control group (P value < 0.001), whereas Bcl-xL gene expression was greater in the ischemia/reperfusion +FK506 group (1.93 ± 0.15) than in the ischemia/reperfusion group. Moreover, the mRNA expression ratio of BAD up-regulated in the ischemia/reperfusion + FK506 group was 3.65 ± 0.49 compared to Normal control (1.39 ± 0.09) and Ischemia/reperfusion + FK506 was 1.09 ± 0.20 (P value < 0.001). Conclusions: The analysis of the pro-apoptotic gene to anti-apoptotic gene expression ratio (BAD /Bcl-xL) confirmed that expression of the pro-apoptotic gene significantly decreased (P value 0.001) under the ischemia/reperfusion condition. In contrast, the expression of the anti-apoptotic gene increased after administration of FK-506 (P value ˂ 0.001).