Human development and related components with malnutrition in children: A global ecological study
Shiva Mansouri Hanis
Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani
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Background: It is necessary to achieve information on malnutrition situation in children for resource allocation and health policy making, therefore this study aimed to identify the role of human development and its component s on malnutrition situation in children under-five years of old worldwide. Materials and Methods: This ecological study was performed on the relation of the malnutrition situation of children under 5 years of old and human development index (HDI). Data about the HDI and its components were obtained for 188 countries from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) database and Data about prevalence of wasting, stunting and overweight in children under 5 in 2014 for 121 countries were obtained from World Health Organization (WHO). Correlation bivariate method was used to evaluate correlation between the prevalence of malnutrition status and the HDI. Results: Globally mean prevalence of stunting, wasting and overweight were 23.4 (21- 25.7), 6.2 (5.4- 7) and 7.1 (6.3- 8) percent respectively. There was a negative statistically significant correlation between prevalence of stunting and wasting with HDI and its components, physician per population, maternal mortality rate (P < 0.001); while positive significant correlations were observed between prevalence of overweight and HDI and its components (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Stunting and wasting were common in low developed regions, while overweight mainly is a health problem in high development regions. HDI and its components can change the prevalence of malnutrition aspects across countries. Developed and developing countries need to provide more health education and preventive interventions about malnutrition in under- five children.