Mediterranean diet adherence and risk of multiple sclerosis: A case-control study
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Background and Objectives: We conducted a hospital-based, case-control study to examine the association between Mediterranean diet (MD) and the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Iran. Methods and Study Design: A total of 70 patients with MS and 142 controls underwent face-to-face interviews in the major neurological clinics of Tehran, Iran. Adherence to a MD was assessed using the 9-unit dietary score, to evaluate the level of conformity of the individual's diet to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Higher consumption of fruits (OR=0.28, 95% CI: 0.12-0.63, p-value: 0.002) and vegetables (OR=0.23, 95% CI: 0.10-0.53, p-value: 0.001) were significantly associated with reduced MS risk. In both age adjusted and multivariate adjusted model, the OR of MS decreased significantly in the third as compared to the first tertile of MD score (age adjusted OR: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.06-0.67; p-trend: 0.01, Multivariate adjusted OR: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.06-0.89, p-trend: 0.04). Conclusions: Our study suggests that a high quality diet assessed by MD may decrease the risk of MS.