Association between serum calcium and metabolic syndrome indicators among women in Mazandaran, Northern Province of Iran
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Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined by indicators of hypertension, abdominal obesity, abnormal lipid profile, and hyperglycaemia. Few studies have investigated the association between serum calcium and MetS. Thus, this study examined prospectively the association between serum calcium in Iranian women with onset of MetS, and key components of MetS. Methods: A total of 460 subjects were recruited, comprising 232 with MetS and 228 as a control group. Waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP) were measured and fasting blood samples were obtained for determination of glucose, insulin, total triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and serum calcium. Results: Compared to the control group, women with MetS had significantly higher WC, BP, TG, glucose, and LDL-C levels but lower HDL-C levels with 97.1 ±8.4 cm, 123.2 ±16 mmHg, 219.9 ±88.7 mg/dl, 119.208.8 mg/di, 121.3 ±201 mg/dl, and 38.8 ±4.9 mg/dl, respectively. Serum concentrations of calcium were significantly higher in women with MetS (9.9 ±0.3 mg/dl) compared to the control group (9.1 ±0.7 mg/dl). Serum concentrations of calcium and phosphorus are predictors of MetS. Serum calcium level had a positive association with the risk of having high levels of glucose, TG, BP and WC. Conclusion: Serum calcium level showed a positive association with the risk of having high levels of parameters associated with MetS in the Iranian women studied. More studies on MetS are suggested to include measuring serum calcium as well to verify the present findings.