A comparison of food pattern, macro- and some micronutrients density of the diet across different socio-economic zones of Tehran
Mohammad Reza Khoshfetrat
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Background: The consumption of low quality foods is common in low socioeconomic areas; and according to epidemiological studies, the density of nutrients often proves the quality of diet. This study aimed to compare the density of macronutrients and micronutrients in various parts of Tehran. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study performed from September to December 2007 in all the 22 districts of the municipality of Tehran including 1,807 households. Experienced interviewers completed a 24-hour recall questionnaire. To estimate the nutrient densities, nutrient intake (grams or milligrams) was calculated per 1,000 kcal energy intake. To calculate the density of energy intake, energy intake (kcal) was divided by 100 g of foodstuff. The 22 districts of Tehran were divided into five zones of north, center, east, west and south. ANOVA and Tukey tests were used. Results: The highest density of protein and fat intake was observed in the north of Tehran, while carbohydrate density was highest in the west, east and south zones, and energy density was highest in the south zone (p < 0.05). Calcium and vitamin C had the highest density in the north of Tehran, and vitamin A and riboflavin had the highest density in the north and center of Tehran, and the lowest level in the south of Tehran (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Despite the high density of energy in the south of Tehran, a deficiency of micronutrient intake was obvious, reflecting the importance of the impact of socioeconomic factors.